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Filling a Need While Making Some Noise
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Subject to credit approval. The music therapist seems to become even more aware of the patient as a whole person and of the fact that each interpersonal contact may have immediate and crucial implications for the patient's total life situation. It is not merely a question of his adjustment on a sheltered hospital ward. The constant impinging of the entire community environment on the music therapy contact creates the necessity for a broad framework within which music therapy can serve the outpatient's needs Tyson, , p.
Tyson argues that the main goal of community music therapy is the same as that of hospital music therapy, the resocialization of the patient.
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But she proposes that the possibilities for working with this are different, for instance because the community music therapy center is a milieu with a broader range of people walking in and out than in a hospital. She describes vividly how interaction among patients could grow out of informal conversations in the waiting room of the center, and how this could work as a starting point for the development of contacts and friendships.
This opportunity for friendship expanded during preparations for the center's semiannual musicales. The musicales resulted in strikingly improved social interaction among new combinations of patients Tyson, , p.
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Tyson thus introduces community performances as part of the music therapy center's activities, and she argues for a range of positive outcomes from these performances, both for the development of individual clients, for the development of the milieu at the center, and for the development of positive relationships between the center and the community. I will not go into detail in describing the rest of Tyson's argument from Most of the rest of the piece is concerned with discussions of the necessary qualifications for music therapists to work in a community music therapy center.
She argues that a center will need therapists of both sexes and of various ages in order to meet the needs and wishes of various patients. In Tyson developed the description and discussion of the community music therapy center in an article she called "Guidelines Toward the Organization of Clinical Music Therapy Programs in the Community.
The more practical aspects of the text how to work with administrative and financial functions, etc. For instance, Tyson carefully describes how she works in informing the community, and she gives an account of clinical considerations that negotiate between educational and psychotherapeutic aspects:. In attempting to meet the needs of patients in the community, it soon becomes very clear how indirectly the course of music therapy serves musical ends. What are the needs that must be met?
There is the patient's tenuous hold upon reality, which results in a precarious, unstable day-to-day situation; the inability to formulate goals or to apply oneself with sustained energy; low self-concept which perpetuates destructive and self-defeating tendencies; lack of satisfying experiences; denial of angry feelings; immobilization because of overwhelming anxieties and fears; profound misunderstandings and distortions of events and responses.
Above all, there is the terrifying isolation which results from the inability to relate to others. Nevertheless, in spite of and because of these functional approaches to patient's problems in the music therapy setting, because there is emotional and social growth of the patient at the Music Therapy Center, there is almost always musical growth Tyson, , pp.
Tyson closes this article with an outline of future developmental prospects, including ideas about the development of community consultation music therapists providing consultation to agencies and professionals in the community , and of research and postgraduate training in community music therapy Tyson, , p. North American music therapy in the s and s to an increasing degree became behavioral in orientation, but there have been several divergent voices, advocating alternative and broader perspectives on music therapy. One of the more powerful voices has been that of Carolyn Kenny, who has been working partly in California, partly in Vancouver in Canada.
The specific term community music therapy or closely related terms do not appear in Carolyn Kenny's writing, but several of her influential contributions to music therapy theory are of relevance to the present discussion. In her first book, The Mythic Artery , Kenny advocates the value of "mystery, myth, and magic" in human lives generally and in music therapy specifically, through a discussion of music as part of a broader cultural system of health.
Taking the work of Gregory Bateson as one of her points of departure, Kenny advocates relational definitions. She suggests that music in music therapy should not be considered a "medication" a means in a restricted sense , but that music therapists should encourage and support people in taking responsibility for their health and their lives. Based upon these premises she proposes the following definition:.
Music Therapy is a process and a form which combines the healing aspects of music with the issues of human need for the benefit of the individual and hence society.
The Music Therapist serves as a resource person and guide, providing musical experiences which direct clients towards health and well- being Kenny, , p. The first part of the book is a cultural critique, with a discussion of the "dearth of creativity" in modern Western societies. She links creativity to growth and health, and suggests that some psychotherapists have been disguising moral and political conflicts as mere personal problems, and she also criticizes the medical profession for claiming "freedom" from the broad world of law and religion by reference to its scientific base and therefore immunizing itself to criticism from society at large :.
Value-free cure and care merely does not exist. Unfortunately, many health professionals have a deeper, culturally health-denying effect insofar as they destroy the potential of people to deal with their human weakness, vulnerability and uniqueness in a personal and autonomous way. We unnecessary become health care consumers Kenny, , pp.
Related to this Kenny argues that the sociocultural function of therapy and therapists in the society must be examined:. Because treatments are decided through society's value system and the therapist at that moment, the values of the patient and rights to self-determination and self-actualization are greatly inhibited. If the patient has ways of being and speaking which fall outside the prescribed behavior for a particular social code, these strange "behaviors" are considered deviant and therefore symptoms of some illness Kenny, , p.
Kenny acknowledges the role and importance of the humanistic school of therapist, as an "exception" illuminating the possibility of a different role for the therapist. In line with the thinking of humanistic therapists she advocates:. We need to reintroduce freedom, choice, responsibility into the conceptual framework and vocabulary of psychiatry and health care in general Kenny, , pp. Integrated in this sociocultural self critique Kenny reflects upon the role of science, as partly a liberating and partly a suppressing enterprise through its establishment of itself as dominant knowledge , and she advocates that scientific knowledge needs to be balanced by the arts.
However, the arts are also subject to a cultural criticism by Kenny, since she suggests that the arts in modern societies to a large degree have lost contact with the everyday life of ordinary people. This critique she then links to health and therapy:. One of the specific problems in treatment today is that we have lost the historical thread of the arts as healers for every man. Gradually, they are coming back. More and more people are taking up the arts and crafts. However, when the arts are applied to therapy, they are often justified and rationalized into distortions of the original benefits of the arts as healers.
In our attempts to become more and more civilized, we have stretched beyond the sacred limits of intellect and are only recently starting the journey back to center. On the one hand, we have the specialized artist, a person removed and excused from the conventions of society at large.